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The process begins with the original instrument in the source language. The following steps, explained below, are required for the translation process:
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- Forward translation
Two forward translations into the target language will be completed by two professional translators with experience in medical translation, working independently of each other. These translators have to be native speakers of the target language and fluent in English.
The product of this step: forward versions 1a and 1b (target language)
The two translators who participated in step 1, together with the Rome Foundation-appointed clinician, compare the two target-language versions (1a and 1b), identify differences and conduct a reconciliation process.
The product of this step: forward version 2 (target language)
- Backward translation
Forward version 2 (target language) is translated back into English by a professional translator, with experience in medication translation, who is a native speaker of English and fluent in the target language. This translator should not have been involved in steps 1 and 2 in any way.
The product of this step: backward version 1 (English)
- Comparison of the two English versions and validation of the translation
The original instrument and the back-translated version 1 (both in English) will be compared, item-by-item, on two dimensions, i.e., similarity of language (literal translation) and comparability of interpretation (cultural adaptation). Several methods can be adopted for this process. These include:
- The process designed and published by Dr. Sperber. References and instructions will be available at request from the Rome Foundation and Dr. Sperber will be available for consultation, if requested.
- Focus groups of patients after pre-testing
- Focus groups of bi-lingual individuals
- Dedicated meeting of expert translators
- Approval by the Rome Foundation-appointed clinician, a native speaker of the target language
The product of this step: Rome Foundation approved instrument